APA Parenthetical (in-text) Citations

American Pscyhological Association (APA) provides guidelines on formatting and citing sources when you are writing.

Parenthetical/in-text Citations Examples

In-text citations are required when you either paraphrase information, or use a direct quote.  Here’s an example:

Direct Quote:

Students with certified school librarians, “demonstrate greater research skills, flexibility in information gathering, and more capacity to synthesize information” than their peers who graduated from high schools that did not employ certified librarians (McNerney, 2008, p. 18).

Paraphrase Example:

Recent school library research reveals that students in schools with certified school librarians are more academically successful in college (McNerney, 2008, p. 18).

Parenthetical/In-text Citations Flow Chart

Your parenthetical (in-text) citations will include information on three topics. The flow chart below guides you on each of these topics:

  • Author(s)
  • Publication year
  • ORIGINAL page numbers when the source was published

Click here for a larger version of this chart.

Published by Olathe East High School

Olathe East High School Librarian

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